Cordell Hull (October 2, 1871 – July 23, 1955) served as United States Secretary of State from 1933-1944 under Franklin Delano Roosevelt and received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1945.
Life and career
Cordell Hull, longest-serving Secretary of State under Franklin D. Roosevelt, is best known as recipient of the 1945 Nobel Prize for Peace for his work spearheading the formation of the United Nations. He was nominated for the honor by FDR, who dubbed Hull "Father of the UN."
Born in Olympus, Pickett County, Tennessee, Hull hers' college from 1889 until 1890. At the age of 19, Hull became the elected chairman of the Clay County, Tennessee Democratic Party (United States). In 1891, he graduated from Cumberland School of Law at Cumberland University and was admitted to the bar (law). He served in the Tennessee House of Representatives from 1893 to 1897. During the Spanish-American War, Hull served in Cuba as a captain in the Fourth Regiment of the Tennessee Volunteer Infantry.
From 1903 to 1907, Hull served as a local judge; later he was elected to the United States House of Representatives where he served 11 terms (1907-1921 and 1923-1931) totaling 22 years. After his defeat in 1920, he served as chairman of the Democratic National Committee. As a member of the powerful U.S. House Committee on Ways and Means, he fought for low tariffs and claimed authorship of the federal income tax laws of 1913 and 1916 and the inheritance tax of 1916. He was elected to the United States Senate in 1930. In 1933, Roosevelt named him Secretary of State. Roosevelt often ignored Hull in making major foreign policy decisions, leaving the Secretary, in the opinion of most historians, to play the role of a highly popular empty suit. Hull did try to enlarge foreign trade and lower tariffs. In 1943, Hull served as United States delegate to the Moscow Conference.
Hull chaired the Advisory Committee of Postwar Foreign Policy, created in February, 1942.
When the Free French Forces of Charles de Gaulle liberated the islands of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon (located south of Newfoundland) in December, 1941, Hull lodged a very strong protest and even went as far as referring to the Gaullist naval forces as "the so called Free French." His request to have the Vichy governor reinstated was met with strong criticism in the American press. The islands remained part of the Free French movement until the end of World War II.
Hull was the underlying force and architect in the creation of the United Nations, as recognized by the 1945 Nobel Prize for Peace, an honor for which Franklin D. Roosevelt nominated him. During World War II Hull and Roosevelt spent tireless hours working toward the development of a world organization to prevent a third World War. Hull and his staff drafted the "United Nations Charter" in mid-1943.
Hull resigned as Secretary of State in November, 1944 because of failing health. Roosevelt described Hull, upon his departure as "the one person in all the world who has done his most to make this great plan for peace (the United Nations) an effective fact". The Norwegian Nobel Committee honored Hull with the Nobel Peace Prize in 1945 in recognition of his efforts for peace and understanding in the Western Hemisphere, his trade agreements, and his work to establish the United Nations. Hull was the longest-serving serving Secretary of State: 11 years, nine months.
Hull died in Washington, D.C. and is buried in the vault of the Chapel of St. Joseph of Arimathea in the Washington National Cathedral. His memory is preserved by Cordell Hull Dam on the Cumberland River near Carthage, Tennessee. Hull was portrayed by veteran actor George Macready in the 1970 film Tora! Tora! Tora!.
A segment of Kentucky highway route 70, leading from Interstate 65 to Mammoth Cave National Park, is named "Cordell Hull Highway."
In the Worldwar series of alternate history novels by Harry Turtledove, Hull becomes president at some point in 1944, following the deaths of first Vice-President Wallace and then President Roosevelt.
Cordell Hull. Memoirs (1948).
Julius W. Pratt, Cordell Hull, 1933–44, 2 vol. (1964) Biography from U.S. Congress biography page Hull, Cordell by EB http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9041456?query=cordell%20hull&ct=
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